Arthurs Creek is a rural locality 33 km north-west of Melbourne. The creek, which is a tributary of the Diamond Creek, was the border between the former Whittlesea and Eltham shires. The creek was named after Henry Arthur, a member of Batman's Port Phillip Association and nephew of Tasmania's Governor George Arthur, who settled at Arthur's Creek.
Land selection began in 1863. A European settler was John Ryder whose name was given to Ryder's Swamp, the original name for the Yan Yean reservoir. Arthurs Creek was suited to horticulture as well as grazing. By the 1880s there were several orchards, the biggest being 'Charnwood', exhibiting 200 varieties of fruit at the Melbourne International Exhibition. Although the population warranted a primary school in 1870, it took until 1876 for one to be provided on land donated by Ryder. By the turn of the century Arthurs Creek had a Methodist church, mechanics' institute and a free library, and the Arthurs Creek Fruit Grower's Association had been going for ten years. Arthurs Creek was described in the 1903 Australian handbook:
On the eve of World War I seventy orchardists had 1886 acres under trees, and the Association had links with orchardists at Humevale and Eden Park. After the war tomatoes began to replace orchards, and continued until and beyond World War II when irrigated farms in northern Victoria took over production.
Arthurs Creek primary school had 59 pupils in 2014.
The census populations of Arthurs Creek have been:
J.W. Payne, The plenty: a centenary history of the Whittlesea Shire, Lowden Publishing Co, 1975