The Goulburn Shire (1871-1994) in northern Victoria was proclaimed on 24 March 1871. It had an area of 850 sq km, and its administrative centre was Nagambie. Other places in the shire included Graytown, Longwood, Murchison East, Ruffy and Tabilk.
The shire was named after the Goulburn River, which was found in 1824 by the explorers Hume and Hovell. At first named Hovell River, it was renamed Goulburn either after Henry Goulburn, British Under Secretary for Colonies (1812-21) or after his brother Frederick, Colonial Secretary of New South Wales (1820-24).