Campaspe Shire was formed on 18 November 1994, by the union of Echuca city, Kyabram town, Deakin Shire, most of Rochester and Waranga Shires and part of Rodney Shire. Its area is 4526 sq km and its administrative centre is Echuca.
The shire is named after the Campaspe River which flows northwards through the shire from the Kyneton region, joining the Murray River at Echuca. In 1834 the New South Wales Surveyor-General, Thomas Mitchell named the river after Campaspe, a concubine of Alexander the Great. Mitchell drew on Macedonian and Greek history for several place names.