Carlsruhe, a rural locality with buildings divided between the Calder Highway and the railway line from Melbourne to Bendigo, is 70 km north-west of Melbourne. It was named after a pastoral run taken up in 1837 by Charles Ebden who had completed his education at Carlsruhe, Germany, Ebden’s run was the first in the district.
Until the formation of Kyneton, 6 km north-west, in 1849, Carlsruhe was the district’s centre of settlement. It had an armed regiment (1838-39), a hotel (1846) and a police station with over 30 officers until the mid-1850s. A school was opened in 1855.