Balmattum is a pastoral district north-east of Melbourne between Euroa and Violet Town. It was named after Balmattum Hill, a small range immediately south-west of Euroa.

It is thought that Balmattum is derived from an Aboriginal word meaning man lying on his back, which the range resembles when viewed from the west.

Balmattum was part of the Seven Creeks pastoral run north-east of Euroa. In the 1860s the area was opened up for selection. A school was opened in 1863 and named Duck Ponds, which is a neighbouring locality. A Presbyterian church was opened in 1878. At various times there has been a post office, a hotel, a butter factory, a blacksmith's and a grocery shop.

Balmattum was described in the Australian handbook of 1903:

Balmattum is situated on flat, relatively treeless country near the railway line. It has a church, a CFA station and fuel stops on the Hume Freeway. Balmattum East is closer to a timbered range south-east of the Hume Freeway.

Other farming localities north of Balmattum include Miepoll, Moglonemby and Riggs Creek. Balmattum school closed in 1951.

The census populations were:

Census date Population
1911 325
1961 151
2006  234*
2011 331

* Balmattum and environs